In spite of the ever increasing number of driven piles, some 19th century dynamic formulae used to estimate the bearing capacity of driven piles are still in use today. The use of wave equation for pile driving analysis was first introduced by EAL Smith in 1955. After Smith, several researchers confirmed the soundness of the basic approach. Derived from a large amount of measurements available from earlier research, the research team at Case Institute of Technology, now working at GRL, developed the WEAP computer program.

After going through several stages of development, the latest version of WEAP is now known as GRLWEAP which includes several additional powerful options.

Using a realistic model for each element of a driving system, this analytical approach has achieved a very satisfactory correlation of predicted and maximum pile top forces. Similar comparisons are also made for energy transferred. To model the hammer assembly realistically, GRLWEAP also has an extensive library of Hammer Data which includes many hammer types and related driving system parameters (helmet weight, cushion materials, etc).

Basically, this software is capable of performing seveGRLWEAP1ral analysis options such as:

  1. Standard Analysis – an analysis at a given depth which can be done with fixed toe resistance, or with fixed skin resistance or with both variable skin and toe resistances.
  2. Capacity vs. Depth Analysis – the program calculates at each specified depth the total resistance of the pile.


GRLWEAP output includes extensive numerical tables and several sets of curves such as pile capacity, maximum compressive and tensile stress as a function of blow counts or pile penetration. These curves are very useful at the design stage to determine pile length, pile dimension, etc. as well as to specify driving criteria such as hammer size and required final set.


Batu Hijau, Sumbawa (1998) – PT. McConnell Dowell Indonesia
Total E&P Tunu Field Development Project Phase 11S/EPSC 3 (2008) – PT. Meindo Elang Indah


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